|Published online: June 20, 2014||$US5.00|
The purpose of this paper is to address a gap in the extant literature regarding leadership theory in the context of athletics. Specifically, the paper proposes a conceptual leadership model, namely, the Collegiate Athletic Leadership Model (CALM) for National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) teams. The model is formulated on the basis of a review of leadership theory literature. The CALM provides clarity on the interaction and range of transformational and transactional leadership behaviors that foster positive outcomes at the team and individual level, which has not been studied for NCAA teams at the Division I, II, or III levels. A review of the literature suggests that CALM behaviors are best placed in three tiers. The first tier is “foundation behaviors,” which are contingent reward, articulating a vision, fostering acceptance of group goals, and providing an appropriate role model. The second tier, “supporting behavior,” refers to individual consideration, which is most effective at the individual level of analysis. Intellectual stimulation and high performance expectations are the third tier, “developmental behaviors.” The categorization of the Foundational, Supporting, and Developmental tiers leads to the FSD model. Leader–member exchange (LMX) is posited as the mediating variable between the CALM behaviors and outcomes at the team and individual levels. The CALM is viewed in the context of NCAA Division I, II, and III academic institutions. These institutions are inherently complex, both in terms of organization, personnel, and goals. Future research should focus on NCAA teams and case studies, as well as empirical investigation of the tenets of the proposed models.
|Keywords:||Context, Transformational Leadership, Transactional Leadership, Leader–Member Exchange, Team Performance Outcomes, Athletic Teams|
Men's Ice Hockey Coach, Athletics Department, Skidmore College, Saratoga Springs, New York, USA
Associate Professor and Department Chair, Department of Management and Business, Skidmore College, Saratoga Springs, New York, USA
Professor, Department of Health and Exercise Sciences, Skidmore College, Saratoga Springs, New York, USA