As a result of critical reflection about the ambivalent nature of sport (it can promote inclusion as well as exclusion and violence), it becomes necessary to use this tool in cooperation for development according to certain methodological models carefully chosen, and applying clearly defined strategies according to the stated objectives. We propose in this paper a programme based on theoretical frameworks aimed to promote Intercultural living together through physical activity and sports. In this programme the active and participatory character played an important role, as well as the learning by playing, the abilities of the facilitators and the social-cultural appropriateness of the sessions.
In addition, we present some results of an extensive evaluation of the programme, combining quantitative and qualitative techniques. The programme was developed with 4 intervention groups (in total 100 regular participants, plus a control group of 557 persons) in Guatemalan post-conflict context, which is dominated by ethnical segregation and racism. Nevertheless, the proposed programme and model of intervention could be of great use in other studies and intercultural projects, within cooperation for development, and in the area of migration.
In spite of some limitations in research (small sample size of some subgroups) and intervention (limited duration of programme, irregular participation, lack of good facilities), the results showed some notable improvement in the affective-cognitive and behavioural components of tolerance regarding attitudes towards the diversity and in the intercultural phases, especially in developing decentring processes and comprehension. The promotion of inter-ethnic interaction, communication, trust, awareness of others and their cultures, the appreciation of one’s own culture, awareness of convergences, appreciation of cultural diversity, and reduction of prejudice have been responsible key factors for the changes. A longer duration of the programme is recommended to enhance the improvement in intercultural living together.
|Keywords:||Interculturalism, Culture, Racism, Sports, Cooperation for Development, Education, Evaluation|
Universidad Politécnica de Madrid (Technical University of Madrid), Madrid, Madrid, Spain
Research coordinator (postdoc), Interdisciplinary Centre of Excellence for Sports Science and Development, ICESSD, University of the Western Cape, Bellville, South Africa